HAITI: THE MAGIC LAND
By Alejandro Guevara Onofre
In 1492 Christopher Columbus wrote about Haiti: “The most lovely in the globe”. Definitely, Haiti is a excellent nation in the Caribbean. I believe that has a special beauty, with a geography and common society that is totally diverse from all the other countries in Latin The us.
Now, this essay is a historical details about Haiti, the 1st black republic in the modern day background and a person of the poorest nations on Earth. Each individual chapter presents aspects on background, economic system, biographies, activity, awards, international relations, society and other crucial areas of Haiti. The folks that do not know Haiti incredibly a great deal believe that Haiti is only a person of the world’s poorest countries, but the Island is regarded for its common society, hospitality, superstitions, background. Also, Haiti is the home to Nationwide Park Historical past, a person of the ancient wonders of the globe, and renowned women these as Edwidge Danticat and Michaëlle Jean had been born there.
Considering the fact that then, the dictatorships have wrecked Haitian society, economic system, ecology and activity. Considering the fact that 1950, two million Haitian folks emigrated to the United States and other countries. Haitian-American arrived from Haiti with nothing at all much more than their outfits. If we assess the Haiti of right now to Haiti of 30 years ago, we see a modify: a new multiparty democracy. Currently, a huge portion of the Third World and much more than a billion folks are below dictatorships.
At some point, I would like to finish my introduction with a message by Albert Mangones: “Haiti is one of a kind in background, going instantly from slavery to nationhood”.
1492: Columbus found Haiti in the fifteenth Century.
1520-1697: Haiti is a Spanish territory. In the late 1500 and early 1600, African slaves flocked to Island.
1697-1790: Haiti is a French colony. Just after 16th Century, Haiti grew to become the most crucial French colony in the Americas. Island´s export to Europe bundled sugar, coffee and corn. The beauty of Haiti is regarded by the French in the mid-1700 Century, when they known as it “Pearl the Caribbean”.
1790-1803: During the French colonization slaves suffers from maltreatment. By the late 1790, professional-independence demonstrations. An Anti-slavery movement below Toussaint L´Ouverture commenced. L´Ouverture is a person of the most crucial black leaders in the background.During this time period of time, Haitian slaves attack villages. Anti-French protests riots brutally suppressed. By the late 1803, below leadership of Jean Jacques Dessalines, Haiti military defeated the French forces at the Fight of Vertieres.
1804-1806:A French colony for much more than hundred years, Haiti turns into independent, a person of the most crucial events in the background. Jean Jacques Dessalines grew to become the 1st president of new republic of Haiti, the 1st black republic in the modern day background. Dessalines is the “Father of Modern day Haiti”. Haiti occupies the Western third of Hispaniola, the next-greatest Island in the Caribbean.
1804-1820: However Haiti is divided into two zones. Northern Haiti is occupied by Henri Christopher, who is named Emperor, when the north is occupied by Alexander Petion. Petion is most likely the biggest Haitian politician who at any time lived.
1880: Haiti has a person of the richest ecosystems in the Caribbean.
1900: Haiti´s modern day political has been tumultuous, marked by dictatorships
1915-1934: Haiti has not experienced an effective national government Invasion by United States forces. US troops despatched to Haiti throughout civil sub-war.
1918: The Presidential Palace, a person of the finest national palaces in the globe, is originally developed by the Haitian Georges Bassan. Bassan is motivated to White Residence Washington.
1926: Emily Greene Balch, a human legal rights activist, went to Haiti.
1928: Cator is the only Haitian at any time to earn olympic silver medal. Just after, Haitian athlete Sylvio Cator breaks the men’s very long bounce file in Paris. Cator was offered a hero’s welcome when he returned to his nation.
1937: In the Dominican Republic, Rafael Leonidas Trujillo purchased national troops to massacre of 20000 Haitian emigrants.
1940-1950: Haiti is a person of the most popular travel destinations in the Caribbean.
1944: Dewitt Peters, an American college-trainer, started the Centre d’Art in Port -au-Prince Considering the fact that 1944, Centre d’Art grew to become the centre of the Haitian painting. It is now a person of Haiti´s major vacationer sights, and each and every 12 months countless numbers of folks came to see the paintings and other get the job done of Haitian art.
1945: Haiti turns into the 26th member of the United Nations in Oct.
1956: Haiti establishes diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan).
1956: Daniel Fignolé is President of the Provisional Council and Head of State of Haiti
1957-1971:Just after performing for a time as a common medical doctor, Francois Duvalier grew to become a person of Haiti’s most famous doctors. In 1957, Duvalier is elected President of the Republic of Haiti. President Duvalier introduced: “My government will guarantee the work out of liberty to all Haitians”. Francois Duvalier, also regarded for his nickname “Papa Doc”, emerged as Head of State and immediately received approximately complete energy. In 1961 “Papa Doc” rewrote the Nationwide Constitution. Just after, he grew to become the 1st “President for Eternity of Haiti”. In the sixties and nineteen seventies “Papa Doc” popularizes superstitions suggestions to Haiti by a collection of crucial voodoo rites. The Duvalier dictatorship instituted rig press censorship. International organizations accuse government of grave human legal rights abuses. His regime of terror resulted in the deaths of least 30000 Haitian. The Island is a person of the most perilous countries in the Third World.
1957-1981: Haitian First Woman Simone Ovide grew to become a person of the most dominant women in the background of Haiti. Simone, spouse of the most famous dictator of Haiti, received in impact and energy by corruption and criminal offense.
1957-1989: For lots of decades, Haiti does not have diplomatic relations with the USSR, People’s Republic of China, Cuba, Hungary, South Africa and East Germany.
1960: The Tonton Macoutes, the brutal mystery law enforcement, initiated a “Haitian genocide” in which political prisoners had been tortured and executed.
1964: Joseph Eduard Gaetjens, the idol of thousands and thousands of Haitians, is arrested and killed by the Tonton Macoutes, the sinister Haitian mystery law enforcement. Like John Barnes (Jamaica) and Everald “Gally” Cummings (Trinidad Tobago), he was a great footballer in the Caribbean. Just after, Gaetjens grow to be a globe image of the battle towards dictatorship in the Third World. He experienced dual Haitian and American nationality and performed at 1950 World Cup for the United States. Son of Haitian mom and Belgium father, he performed for lots of clubs in the United States. The 12 months 1950 was a incredibly crucial 12 months for Gaetjens: the United States conquer England 1-, the birthplace of the modern day football.
1964: Francois Duvalier transformed the national flag. Black and red are the colors chosen by Duvalier. Black, which is equivalent to the Angolan flag, signifies the descendants of the patriot Francois Toussaint L’Ouverture and is also the common color of the Haitian folks. While, red symbolizes the country`s independence. But the first flag, applied considering the fact that 1803, was eradicated in 1986 by get of the new government.
1966: Haile Selassie, the Emperor of Ethiopia, arrives in Port-au-Prince. Beneath the leadership of Dictator Francois Duvalier, lots of African countries keep formal diplomatic relations with Haiti.
1967: The Comedians, a movie by British director Peter Glenville, motivated in the cruel Haitian dictatorship by the Duvalier relatives.
1971: Just after Duvalier’s loss of life, energy handed to his son Jean Claude Duvalier, the man who grew to become regarded through the globe as “Little one Doc”. Little one Doc is as dictatorial as his father. Haiti is ruled by iron hand. Duvalier, finest regarded for his anticommunist political, is omnipresent. Numerous opposition leaders had been arrested. He is accused of human legal rights abuses. Thousand of Haitian folks fled the nation. Corruption is common at all stages of government. The overall health program is a person of the worst in the Americas.
1974: The sporting program is a person of the worst in the Third World, but Haiti skilled for the 1974 FIFA World Cup. Haiti conquer Trinidad-Tobago in the World Cup qualifiers. Is a person of the biggest sporting minute, in the chronology, evaluating it to one thing like Sylvio Cator, who won a silver medal in very long bounce in the 1928 Olympics Video games in Holland.
1975: In El Salvador, Overlook Haiti, Gerthie David, is named 1st runner up at Overlook Universe Pageant… transmitting stay to thousands and thousands by CBS. Just after, Gerthie David is acclaimed in Port-au-Prince as a national heroine. Overlook Haiti competed with seventy one other women from about the globe for the title of Overlook Universe, like Overlook United states, Summer season Barthollomew.
1980: Like Canada, West Germany South Korea and Kenya, Haiti boycott the Moscow Olympic Video games in protest for Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
1980-1986: Jean-Claude Duvalier, Haiti’s longtime dictator, married Michelle Bennett, an aristocratic girl. A little much more than a few months later on, Bennett-Duvalier turns into First Woman of Haiti. Like Eva Peron (Argentina) or Jiang Qing (People’s Republic of China), she was a female with great energy. Michelle Bennett promoted her mulatto countrymen to positions of leadership in the dictatorship at his price of the African-Haitians.
1982: The Nationwide Historical past Park (La Citadelle Laferriere, Sans Souci Palace and Ramiers) is designated as a World Heritage Web site by the UNESCO. Like Machu Picchu (Peru) and Angkor What (Cambodia), the Nationwide Historical past Park is regarded as amid the wonders of the globe.
1982: Ronald Agenor wins a gold medal in men’s tennis singles at the Central American and Caribbean Athletics Video games La Havana. He captures the hearts of the Island.
1983: Pope John Paul arrives in Haiti for a pay a visit to. “Points most modify here”, claimed John Paul II.
1986: As Jean-Claude consolidated his energy, he persistently refused to consider constitutional reform. The insurrection towards the dictator Jean Claude Duvalier began…Antigovernment protesters in the capital. Numerous deaths, accidents and arrests. Seeming conclude to very long Haitian dictatorship with drop of Duvalier regime.
1987: Haiti has a person of the America’s prices of HIV infection
1987: The New Constitution restored lots of of the liberties abolished by the Duvalier relatives. The Nationwide Constitution recognizes both of those French and Creole as formal languages. A new opposition emerged below Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
1988: Writer Rene Depestre wins the Prix Ranandot. Depestre, a Haitian dissident now dwelling in France, was cited his novel Hadriana dans tous mes reves. By the mid-1980s Rene Depestre experienced grow to be perfectly regarded in literacy circles outside the house Haiti.
1990: Ertha Pascall-Trouillot turns into the 1st black female elected of head of state in the globe.
1990: First multi-celebration elections. Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a charismatic black chief, was elected president of Haiti. Aristide is the 1st democratic president considering the fact that 1804.He was elected with the most popular assist of any Haitian presidential applicant in the background.
1991: Military coup in the nation. Raoul Cedras, chief of the coup, emerged as head of the new government. This 12 months marked the conclude of eight months of democracy. Beneath new government, all political events had been dissolved.
1991-1995: Like Equatorial Guinea, Cuba and North Korea, Haiti has a person of the most significant human legal rights problems in the Third World.
1993: United Nations imposed economic sanctions on Haiti, a person of the most densely populated nations in the Americas.
1994: Peaceful occupation by United States forces to restore democratic electoral program. Raoul Cedras and his relatives went into exile in Panama City. Aristide was restored to energy.
1995: In Port-au-Prince, sub-war violence incorporates assassination of Meireille Durocher Bertin.
1995: In Beijing, the capital of metropolis of the People’s Republic of China, Haiti participated in the UN`s Fourth World Meeting on Women
1996:Additional than five,000 Haitians experienced been killed and miles much more fled to overseas, United States, Canada, Bahamas and Dominican Republic, considering the fact that 1991.
1998: Haitian president Renè Garcia Preval arrives in Taipei (Taiwan) for a 4-working day state pay a visit to. He and President Lee will indicator a communiqué to strengthen bilateral friendship and cooperation.
1999: Dominican president Leonel Fernandez pay a visit to to Haiti as portion of a new diplomacy.
2002: In Paris, Dudley Dorival finished 3rd in the 110 hurdles at the World Championships. He turns into the 1st Haitian to earn an person intercontinental medal considering the fact that 1928.Dorival was born in New Jersey, United States, to Haitian parents on 1 September 1975. He in 2000 officially grew to become a citizen of Haiti.
2000: Haiti is a person of the 30 poorest countries in the Third World.
2000-2001: The elections had been boycotted by the principal opposition political events. Aristide was once more elected President. Common violent in Haiti allege that Aristide’s election victory is fraudulent. Overall political censorship exists in national media.
2004: This 12 months Haiti is celebrating the 2 hundredth Anniversary of their Nationwide Independence. President Jean-Bertrand Aristide of Haiti flees to Central African Republic adhering to anti-government demonstrations. Haiti has a person of the most violent conflict places in the Americas. Just after, UN troops despatched to Haiti throughout civil sub-war.
2006: Rene Preval is sworn in as President of Haiti. Considering the fact that the tranquil transfer of energy in February, Haiti is the latest democracy in the Third World.
Like Bangladesh, Uganda or Tanzania, Haiti is a person of the poorest countries on Earth. In 1997, the Haiti’s economic progress fee (real GDP) for each capita was U$ 1,three hundred. GDP for each capita for Namibia, Botswana and Equatorial Guinea are higher than for Haiti. In the nation 4 million folks dwelling on significantly less than U$two a working day. Additional than six million of the Haiti’s inhabitants nevertheless does not have obtain to potable water and electrical energy. For years of dictatorships experienced left the country’s economic system in ruins. The nation dependent on intercontinental assist. Various hundred thousand farm employees migrate each 12 months to Dominican Republic.
In 1997, complete exports for the 12 months had been U$110 million, when complete imports had been US$ 486 million. Considering the fact that 1804, the US marketplace has been the most crucial export desired destination for Haiti. Virtually 80 per cent of Haiti’s complete exports are destined for the United States. Haiti’s exports include sisal, mangoes, coffee, cotton, bauxite, and sugar. The Island’s imports from the United States include cement, oil, food stuff, equipment and transportation machines. France has been the next greatest exports desired destination for Haitian goods.
In the earlier, the tourism market occupied an eminent spot in the Haitian economic system, but quite a few political problems have blocked tourism. Haiti was the 1st nation in the Caribbean to market tourism in an accelerated kind. Haiti is a small nation with huge mountains, tropical beach locations and lovely historic structures.
Like Katherine Dunham, Lillian Hellman, W.B. Seabrook, Erik Leonard Ekman, Alejo Carpentier, Selden Rodman, Noel Coward and Angeline Jolie, lots of folks say that Haiti is the most lovely nation in the Caribbean. Identified as the “Magic Land”, Haiti is famous for its society. Definitely, Haiti its society, its superstitions and its music. The superstitions or voodoo plays a profound job in the life of lots of Haitians. The voodoo was introduced into Haiti in the late 16th Century. Haiti is also famous for its painting, and eventually for its ruins…for illustration the Sans Souci Palace, the most famous ruins in the Caribbean. Exactly, this enigmatic palace is regarded as a Cultural Heritage for Humanity by UNESCO. At first created by black slaves, now Sans Souci is a person of Haiti’s principal vacationer sights.
Considering the fact that the late forties, Haitian painting, finest regarded as “naïve art” or “intuitive art”, is famous all about the World. The most crucial determine was Hector Hyppolite. His get the job done produced its major splash in the United States in the twentieth Century. Other artists regarded internationally include Rigaud Benoit, Castera Bazile, Joseph Jean-Giles and Jean-Baptista Bottlex.Haiti is famous for its common sculpture. The finest Haitian sculptor is Albert Mangoes.
Nelust Wyclef Jean (singer/Haitian-American): Original member of 1990s hip hop team The Fugees. Wyclef Jean is most likely the most popular Haitian singer of all time. Jean was born in Croix des Bouquets (Haiti) on Oct seventeen, 1972. When he was just ten years old, he moved to the United States. Beneath leadership of Wyclef Jean and Lauryn Hill, The Fugees experienced quite a few hits in the 1990s, like The Rating (The Rating album offered six million copies). Considering the fact that 1997, Wyclef Jean, as soloist, grew to become perfectly-regarded on the intercontinental music scene. Like songwriter and producer, Jean collaborated with superstars as Santana, Withney Houston, Mick Jagger,Bono,Tevin Cambpell, Bounty Killer, Eric Benet, Sarah Connor, Claudette Ortiz, Tarkan, Michael Jackson, Youssou N´Dor, Shakira, Olga Tañon, Carlos Ponce and Julio Voltio. During the last 7 years, he has offered much more than 10 thousands and thousands albums throughout the world. In 2002, his solitary Masquerade was a great achievement.
Considering the fact that then, Wyclef Jean is a man that usually will work with enjoy for Haiti, a person of the World’s poorest countries. Not too long ago, he would make most likely his finest get the job done: “Yele Haiti”, a foundation which will work for the human growth in the Island. Like Miriam Makeba in South Africa or Bianca Jagger in Nicaragua, Jean loves his roots. In an job interview for Journal, Wyclef Jean talked over about Haitian roots: “I am 100% Haitian. I am happy to be Haitian. I nevertheless have my Haitian passport. I symbolize Haiti in everything that I do. Each and every head in the market appreciates that I am Haitian…they know what I’m about. I was Haitian forst. Haitian until die!”, claimed Jean.
Discography: Wyclef Jean Present the Carnival Featuring the refugee All-Stars (1997) / The Ecleftic:two Sides II a Ebook/ Masquerade (2002) / The Preacher’s (2003)/ Sak Pasé Provides: Creole one zero one( 2004) /Hips Don’t Lie (with Shakira, 2006).
Gerthie David “The Black Goddess”
In 1975, lots of Haitian folks had been stunned to open up their newspapers and see images of Gerthie David Overlook Haiti in El Salvador. On the night time of July 19th 1975, in San Salvador, Gerthie David, Overlook Haiti, was the next black female to 1st runner-up in the background of Overlook Universe Pageant. Just after successful the Overlook Haiti title, Gerthie went to San Salvador, the capital metropolis of El Salvador, to enter the Overlook Universe Contest. The competence was exhausting, incredibly hard, for illustration Overlook Bolivia, Jackeline Gammarra, great favored, was eradicated. This working day, Overlook Haiti seems like a black goddess. Her exotic beauty and charming individuality are remarkable! At 1,72m in peak, she was the finest in the evening gown levels of competition, but her speech about the Haitian superstitions swayed countless numbers of applauses in the 25th Edition of the Contest. Definitely, Overlook Haiti captive to the judges Sarah Vaughan (American black singer), Maribel Arrieta (Overlook El Salvador 1955 and First runner-up at Overlook Universe 1955), Jean Claude Killy (French sportsmen) and Leon Uris(American author ).
When Bob Barker, the host this pageant, announces the closing placements, Gerthie was cheered by the full auditorium. Suddenly, her pulse fee beats at thousand for each minute… “First runner-up is Overlook Haiti!”, claimed Barker. She was a person of the most exotic delegates in all background of Overlook Universe. In the nineteen seventies, Gerthie David was a model from Port-au Prince and she grew to become a image to the Haitian youth. Future months, in London, Joelle Apollon, Overlook Haiti-World, came in sixth spot at Overlook World 1975.Just after sixteen years, Marjorie Vincent, formerly Overlook Illinois 1991,won the title of Overlook The us Pageant. The 1st Overlook The us to originate from the Caribbean. In other words and phrases, Marjorie Vincent has Haitian roots. Also, she was the next black female to earn the pageant.
Like in Brazil or Italy, the football is the most popular activity in Haiti. Definitely, the national pastime is the football. A diverse of the Dominican Republic or Puerto Rico, the Haitian folks do not like the baseball. In the twentieth Century, football grew to become the most popular activity in the Island, many thanks to these heroes as Sylvio Cator, Joseph Gaetjens and Emmanuel Sanon. In 1974 Haiti skilled for the World Cup in Germany.
Emmanuel Sanon was a person of the Haiti’s most popular gamers and performed at the 1974 World Cup. Sanon produced a great contribution to Haitian football since he performed in much more World Cup qualifiers any other Haitian. He is nevertheless incredibly popular with nearby supporters. Other phenomenal talent was Joseph Eduard Gaetjens. He represented both of those Haiti and the United States. He produced FIFA World Cup Historical past: When scored United States opening intention in the 1950 World Cup towards England. Joseph came to the United States in the forties to play in the American Soccer League. His lovely play in the Brookhattan Club produced in a national star. In 1953, he performed for Haiti for the 1st time.
It can be basically unachievable to discuss about Haitian athletes without mentioning Sylvio Cator. He is a legend in this activity. Cator won the silver medal in the very long bounce at 1928 Amsterdam Olympics. Cator returned home to a hero’s welcome. From 1928 to 1930, he was file man in the very long bounce. Cator was a great jumper and footballer. He also performed an crucial job in popularizing football in the Island (it was the captain of Haitian Nationwide Crew).
Considering the fact that then, he is an illustration for younger folks in Haiti. He died in November 1938, but right now the folks of Haiti nevertheless believe of him with regard. Numerous years just after Cator’s loss of life, the Nationwide Stadium in Por-au-Prince was renamed in his honor. Cator was the 1st of the great Caribbean sportsmen that would occur to dominate globe track and area.
Bruny Surin (Canada-Haiti/track area)/ Edrick Floreal (Canada-Haiti/track area)/ Samuel Dalembert ( United states-Haiti/basketball) / Ronald Agenor (United states-Haiti/tennis)/ Sylvio Cator (track and area)/ Yves Jeudy (Box)/ Dieudonne Lamothe (marathon)/ Ludovic Augustin (capturing)/ Ludovic Volborge (capturing)/ Joseph Eduard Gaetjens (Haiti-United states/football)/ Dudley Dorival (track area)/ Fitz Plantin Andre (football)/ Emmanuel Sanon (football)/ Josmer Altidore (Haitian-American/football).
Dudley Dorival (track and area): Dudley Dorival was born on 1 September 1975 in Elizabeth (New Jersey, United states). Dorival is the son of Haitian parents and received Haitian nationality just in time for the XXVII Summer season Olympics Video games. Considering the fact that the 2000 Olympics, Dudley Dorival has competed in intercontinental competitions below the banner of Haiti. In Sydney (Australia) Dorival finished seventh in the 110m hurdles. He grew to become the 1st Haitian to Olympic finalist considering the fact that Yves Jeudy (boxer) in 1976. He won the silver medal at the 1994 World Junior Championship, the bronze at the 2001 World Chanpionship and the gold medal at the 2002 Central American and Caribbean Video games El Salvador. Dorival is a person of the finest sportsman in the background of Haiti.
Michaëlla Jean (Governor-Standard of Canada)/ Yvonne Neptune (former Prime Minister)/Claudette Werleigh (Prime Minister 1995-1996)/Lina Blanchet (singer)/ Edwidge Danticat (author)/ Michelle Bennett Duvalier(First Woman of Haiti 1981-1986)/ Luce Turnier (painter)/ Ertha Pascal-Trouillot (Head of State 1990-1991)/ Marie Casimir (journalist) / Sonia Sekula (Painter) / Marie Chauvet (author)/ Suzanne Comhaire-Sylvain (author)/ Carmen Brouard (singer)/Dayana Bennett (journalist and actress) / Elie Price (singer)/ Blanche Bosselman (singer)/ Lina Mathon (singer)/ Georgette Moliere (singer)/ Simone Ovide Duvalier (First Woman of Haiti 1957-1981)/ Marleine Bastien (human legal rights chief)/ Garcelle Beauvais (actress and model)/ Deborah Saint-Phard (track and area)/ Antoinette Gauthier (track and area), Louise Pierre (track and area)/ Rose Gauthier (track and area)
Edwidge Danticat (author): A single of the Caribbean’s most famous writers in the twenty first Century. She has prepared quite a few novels and collections of shore tales, like Kri? Kra!, nominated for a Nationwide Ebook Award. Danticat attracted intercontinental interest in 1997 when she wrote most likely her most famous novel Farming of the Bones, a story about genocide Haitians below the repressive dictatorship of Rafael Leonidas Trujillo.
Garcelle Beauvais (actress): She is the 1st Haitian actress to star on tv. Though she has lived in the United States for lots of years, the actress and former fashion model Garcelle Beauvais was born in Saint Marc, a metropolis in Haiti, in 1966. She is most likely finest regarded for her job as Francesca Monroe on TV’s the Jamie Foxx Exhibit. Like Gerthie David, Joelle Apollon, Evelyn Miot, and Marjorie Vincent, she has the vintage beauty of the Haitian black female
-Bennet Patterson, Carolyn.”Haiti: Over and above mountains, much more mountains”, Nationwide Geographic, Washington DC, January 1976
-Bishop,Randa. “Imponentes monumentos haitianos”, Americas, Washington DC, enero-febrero 1987
-Cobb,Charles. “Haiti towards all odds”, Nationwide Geographic, November 1987
-Encyclopaedia Britannica Ebook of the Yr 1981, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Chicago, 1980
-Encyclopaedia Britannica Almanac 2003, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Chicago, 2002
-Guevara Onofre, Alejandro. Enciclopedia Mundototal 1999, Editorial San Marcos, Lima, 1998
-Hunter, Brian. The Statesman’s Yr-Ebook 1991-ninety two, The Macmillan Push, 1991
-Moritz, Charles. Latest Biography Yearbook 1972, H.W Wilson Corporation, NY
-Sconfield, John. “Haiti-West Africa in the West Indies”, Nationwide Geographic, Washington DC, February 1961
-The International Who’s Who 1996-ninety seven, Europe Publications, London, 1996
-The World Almanac 2001, World Almanac Textbooks, New Jersey, 2001
-Tibballs, Geoff. The Olympics´ strangest times, Robson Textbooks, London, 2004
-Vargas Llosa, Mario. “Haití: la muerte”, El Comercio, Lima, twenty five.4.1994
-Visión. “Imperio del Poder Vitalicio”, Santiago de Chile, seventeen de marzo de 1967
-Wallechinsky, David. The complete Ebook of the Olympics, Aurum Push, London, 2004
-Wallechinsky, David-Wallace, Irving. The People’s Almanac2, Batam Ebook Inc
-WWW.Yotube.com “1975 El Salvador Overlook Universe” (video clip)