Han Chinese clothing


A Tang Dynasty portrait of Confucius (by Wu Daozi) exhibiting him in Hanfu of the Spring and Autumn Period of the Jap Zhou Dynasty.

twelfth century Chinese portray of The Night Revels of Han Xizai () exhibiting musicians dressed in Hanfu

Hanfu has a record of additional than 3 millennia, and is stated to have been worn by the legendary Yellow Emperor. From the beginning of its record, Hanfu (specially in elite circles) was inseparable from silk, supposedly learned by the Yellow Emperor consort, Leizu. The to start with solidly historic dynasty regarded of in China, the Shang Dynasty (c.1600 BC-one thousand BC), formulated the rudiments of Hanfu it consisted of a yi, a slender-cuffed, knee-size tunic tied with a sash, and a slender, ankle-size skirt, named shang, worn with a bixi, a size of material that achieved the knees. Vivid most important colours and eco-friendly were applied, due to the diploma of technological know-how at the time.

The dynasty to stick to the Shang, the Western Zhou Dynasty, founded a stringent hierarchical modern society that applied clothing as a position meridian, and inevitably, the peak of a person rank affected the ornateness of a costume. Such markers provided the size of a skirt, the wideness of a sleeve and the diploma of ornamentation. In addition to these course-oriented developments, the Hanfu turned looser, with the introduction of extensive sleeves and jade decorations hung from the sash which served to continue to keep the yoi closed. The yi was in essence wrapped over, in a style regarded as jiaoling youren, or wrapping the suitable aspect over prior to the left, since of the initially greater problem to the suitable-handed wearer (the Chinese discouraged left-handedness like many other historic cultures, considering it unnatural and regrettable).

In the Jap Zhou Dynasty, the “deep gown” (shenyi) appeared a mix of tunic and skirt. The upper and lower halves were lower independently but sewn as a single device. An added modify was the shaping of the left aspect of the costume into a corner, mounted on the upper body. Most likely since of Confucian influence, disapproving of a hierarchical modern society in favour of social mobility centered on individual benefit, the shenyi was quickly adopted. There nonetheless existed an elite nevertheless, and they monopolised the additional ornate fabrics and grandiose aspects.

Regular Style


The style of Han Chinese clothing can be summarized as made up of garment features that are organized in unique and someday certain methods. This may perhaps be distinctive from the traditional garment of other ethnic groups in China, most notably the Manchurian-affected Chinese clothing, the qipao, which is commonly assumed to be the only recognizable style of “traditional” Chinese garb. A comparison of the two styles can be viewed as follows:




Higher Garment

Consist of “yi” (), which have unfastened lapels and are open

Consist of “pao” (), which have secured lapels all around the neck and no entrance openings

Lessen Garment

Consist of skirts named “chang/shang” (pronounced ch-a-ng) (pronounced sh-a-ng) ()

Consist of pants or trousers named “ku” ( pronounced k-oo)()


Generally, diagonally crossing each individual other, with the left crossing over the suitable

Parallel vertical collars with parallel diagonal lapels, which overlap


Long and unfastened

Slender and limited


Sparingly applied and hid inside the garment

Many and prominently displayed


Belts and sashes are applied to shut, safe, and suit the clothes all around the waistline

Flat ornate buttoning programs are commonly applied to safe the collar and suit the garment all around the neck and upper torso

Shenyi () a variety of Han Chinese clothing frequently worn from the pre-Shang intervals to the Han Dynasty. This kind is regarded as the quju () and worn generally by women.

A entire Hanfu garment is assembled from many items of clothing into an apparel:

Yi (): Any open cross-collar garment, and worn by both of those sexes

Pao (): Any closed whole-physique garment, worn only by guys in Hanfu

Ru (): Open cross-collar shirt

Shan (): Open cross-collar shirt or jacket that is worn over the yi

Qun () or shang (): Skirt for women and guys, respectively

Ku (): Trousers or pants

Men and women are also equipped to accessorize with tassels and jade pendants or many ornaments hung from the belt or sash, regarded as pei ().

Hats and headwear

On top of the clothes, hats (for guys) or hairpieces (for women) may perhaps be worn. A single can frequently notify the occupation or social rank of somebody by what they don on their heads. The typical male hat or cap is named a jin () for commoners and guan () for the privileged. Officials and academics have a individual set of hats for them, commonly the putou (), the wushamao (), the si-fang pingding jin ( or only, fangjin: ) and the Zhuangzi jin (). A typical hairpiece for women is a ji () but there are additional elaborate hairpieces.

Customarily, Chinese guys don their hats indoors as nicely as outdoors as opposed to their Western counterparts. This is primarily since most hats are much too impractical to choose off and carry all around.


One more variety of Han Chinese Shenyi () frequently worn from the pre-Shang intervals to the Han Dynasty. This kind is regarded as the zhiju () and worn generally by guys

Han-Chinese clothing experienced adjusted and developed with the fashion of the times since its frequently assumed beginnings in the Shang dynasty. Many of the before styles are additional gender-neutral and simple in cuttings. Later clothes integrate many items with guys frequently donning pants and women frequently donning skirts. Clothing for women ordinarily accentuates the body’s all-natural curves by means of wrapping of upper garment lapels or binding with sashes at the waistline.

Each dynasty has their have styles of Hanfu as they developed and only number of styles are ‘fossilized’.

Informal don

Styles include tops (yi) and bottoms (divided further into pants and skirts for both of those genders, with distinctive terminologies qun for females and shang for males), and a person-piece robes that wrap all around the physique after or many moments (shenyi).

Shenyi (): a long whole physique garment

Quju (): diagonal physique wrapping

Zhiju (): straight lapels

Zhongyi () or zhongdan (): internal clothes, primarily white cotton or silk

Shanqun (): a small coat with a long skirt

Ruqun (): a top garment with a individual lower garment or skirt

Kuzhe (): a small coat with trousers

Zhiduo/zhishen (/): a Ming Dynasty style gown, related to a zhiju shenyi but with vents at the aspect and ‘stitched sleeves’ (i.e. the sleeve cuff is closed preserve a modest opening for the hand to go by means of)

Two traditional varieties of ruqun (), a variety of Han Chinese clothing worn by women. Cuffs and sleeves on the upper garment may perhaps be tighter or looser dependent on style. A small skirt or weighted braid (with weight presented by a jade or gold pendant) is from time to time worn to enhance aesthetics or convenience of the primary ruqun.

A typical set of Hanfu can consist of two or 3 layers. The to start with layer of clothing is primarily the zhongyi () which is commonly the internal garment a great deal like a Western T-shirt and pants. The following layer is the major layer of clothing which is primarily closed at the entrance. There can be an optional third layer which is frequently an overcoat named a zhaoshan which is open at the entrance. Much more difficult sets of Hanfu can have many additional layers.

For footwear, white socks and black fabric footwear (with white soles) are the norm, but in the earlier, footwear may perhaps have a entrance face panel connected to the tip of the footwear. Daoists, Buddhists and Confucians may perhaps have white stripe chevrons.

Semi-official don

A piece of Hanfu can be “created semi-official” by the addition of the pursuing ideal products:

Chang/shang: a pleated skirt

Bixi (): long entrance fabric panel connected from the waistline belt

Zhaoshan (): long open fronted coat

Guan or any official hats

Generally, this kind of don is suitable for assembly company or likely to meetings and other particular cultural times. This kind of gown is frequently worn by the nobility or the upper-course as they are frequently expensive items of clothing, ordinarily created of silks and damasks. The coat sleeves are frequently further than the shenyi to build a additional voluminous visual appearance.

Men and women in xuanduan official don at a Confucian ceremony in China.

Formal don

In addition to informal and semi-official don, there is a kind of gown that is worn only at sure particular occasions (like critical sacrifices or religious functions) or by particular people today who are entitled to don them (this kind of as officers and emperors).

Formal clothes may perhaps include:

Xuanduan (): a incredibly official dim gown equal to the Western white tie

Daopao/Fusha (/): Taoist/Buddhist priests’ whole gown ceremonial robes

Yuanlingshan (), lanshan () or panlingpao (): closed, spherical-collared gown primarily applied for official or academical gown

The most official Hanfu that a civilian can don is the xuanduan (from time to time named yuanduan ), which is composed of a black or dim blue top garment that operates to the knees with long sleeve (frequently with white piping), a base pink chang, a pink bixi (which can have a motif and/or be edged in black), an optional white belt with two white streamers hanging from the aspect or a bit to the entrance named peishou (), and a long black guan. In addition, wearers may perhaps carry a long jade gui () or wooden hu () tablet (applied when greeting royalty). This kind of gown is primarily applied in sacrificial ceremonies this kind of as Ji Tian () and Ji Zu (), and so on but is also ideal for state occasions.

Individuals in the religious orders don a basic center layer garment followed by a very adorned cloak or coat. Taoists have a ‘scarlet gown’ () which is created of a large cloak sewn at the hem to build incredibly long deep sleeves applied in incredibly official rituals. They are frequently scarlet or crimson in coloration with extensive edging and embroidered with intricate symbols and motifs this kind of as the eight trigrams and the yin and yang Taiji image. Buddhist have a cloak with gold traces on a scarlet track record building a brickwork sample which is wrapped all around over the left shoulder and secured at the suitable aspect of the physique with cords. There may perhaps be further decorations, specially for high clergymen.

Individuals in academia or officialdom have unique robes (regarded as shangfu in court gown phrases). This differs over the ages but they are commonly spherical collared robes closed at the entrance. The most unique characteristic is the headwear which has ‘wings’ connected. Only all those who handed the civil examinations are entitled to don them, but a variation of it can be worn by regular students and laymen and even for a groom at a wedding (but with no hat).

Court docket gown

Court docket gown is the gown worn at incredibly official occasions and ceremonies that are in the presence of a monarch (this kind of as an enthronement ceremony). The entire ensemble of clothing can consist of many complex layers and look incredibly elaborate. Court docket gown is related to the xuanduan in components but have added adornments and elaborate headwear. They are frequently brightly colored with vermillion and blue. There are many variations of court gown that are worn for sure occasions.

Court docket gown refers to:





ceremonial court gown of officers or nobility


ceremonial gown applied at state sacrifices


a official edition of every day court gown


every day court gown


ceremonial/enthronement gown for emperors

The simple use of court gown is now out of date in the modern age since there is no reigning monarch in China any more.

Specific Style

Traditionally, Han Clothing has affected many of its neighbouring cultural costumes, this kind of as Japanese kimono, yukata, and the Vietnamese o t thn. Vice versa, features of Hanfu have also been affected by neighbouring cultural costumes, specially by the nomadic peoples to the north, and Central Asian cultures to the west by way of the Silk Street.

Tang Dynasty Hanfu

Tang Dynasty was a interval of golden age for the people today exactly where tradition and economic climate were flourishing. Primarily, the Women’s gown and individual adornments noticed some major reform in this period. Though it nonetheless proceeds the clothing of its predecessors this kind of as Han and Sui dynasties, fashion for the duration of the Tang was also affected by its cosmopolitan tradition and arts. Communications and trades were flourishing involving the Tang and many areas and cultures and that it has adjusted the thoughts and ideas of the outdated tactics. Ahead of the Tang, Chinese women were limited by the outdated Confucian code exactly where women’s statues were very low and their clothing have to be conceal. On the other hand for the duration of the Tang, women’s clothing step by step turned wide and unfastened. Tang Dynasty was considered by some as a different turning position for Hanfu. Throughout the Tang period, foreign tradition was energetic recognized by the Chinese and blended into Chinese traditional tradition. Such foreign cultures ranged from Gandhara, Turkistan, Persian to Hellenism, though these influences were fused with each other into the Tang clothing with no the prominence of a person specific tradition.

Track Dynasty Hanfu

Some attributes of Tang Clothing carried into the Track Dynasty Such as court customs. Track court customs frequently use pink coloration for their clothes with black leather shoe and hats.Collar edges and sleeve edges of all clothing that have been excavated were adorned with laces or embroidered patterns. Such clothing were adorned with patterns of peony, camellia, plum blossom, and lily, and so on. Track Empress frequently experienced 3 to 5 unique Jewelry-like marks on their face (Two aspect of the cheek,other two following to the eyebrows and a person on the forehead). Though some of Track clothing have similarities with earlier dynasties, some one of a kind traits individual it from the rest. Many of Track Clothing goes into Yuan and Ming.

Ming Dynasty Hanfu

Ming Dynasty also introduced many alterations to its clothing as many dynasties do. They applied metallic buttons and the collar adjusted from the symmetrical variety of the Track Dynasty (960-1279) to the major circular variety. In comparison with the costume of the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the proportion of the upper outer garment to lower skirt in the Ming Dynasty was considerably inverted. Because the upper outer garment was shorter and the lower garment was longer, the jacket step by step turned longer to shorten the size of the uncovered skirt. Younger ladies in the mid Ming Dynasty ordinarily most well-liked to gown in these waistcoats. The waistcoats in the Qing Dynasty were reworked from all those of the Yuan Dynasty. Throughout the Ming Dynasty, Confucian codes and ideals was popularized and it has substantial impact on clothing.

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Styles of Han Chinese clothing

Han clothing

Diyi  Daxiushan  Ruqun  Zhiduo  Banbi  Beizi  Chang-ao  Daopao  Shenyi  Yuanlingshan  Panling Lanshan


Tang official headwear  Track official headwear  Ming official headwear


Phoenix crown  Mandarin sq.

Ethnic id

According to Tang Dynasty scholar Kong Yingda’s official commentary to Zuo Zhuan and Shang Shu, Chinese clothing performs an critical job in the Chinese ethnic id. It states, “In China, there is the grandeur of rites and social carry out that is why it is named Xia (). There is the beauty of gown and decoration this is named Hua () .” The words Hua and Xia combine to kind the term Huaxia (), which is a identify that is frequently applied to depict the Chinese civilization.


A woman servant and male advisor in Chinese silk robes, ceramic collectible figurines from the Western Han Period (202 BC nine Ad)

A Han Dynasty (202 BCE 220 CE) pottery statuette of a woman dancer

Yuanlingshan robes of a Tang emperor

Court docket ladies of the Tang from Li Xianhui’s tomb, Qianling Mausoleum, dated 706.

A portray of Tang Dynasty women enjoying with a dog, by artist Zhou Fang, eighth century.

A Track Dynasty empress, spouse of Emperor Zhenzong of Track

Imperial Portrait of the empress and spouse to Emperor Qinzong of (11001161) of the Track Dynasty in China.

A Ming Dynasty portrait of an Empress

A Ming Dynasty portrait of a noblewoman donning yuanlingshan, xiapei and phoenix crown

Taoist priest in pink colored gown

Tang Dynasty Styled Hanfu

See also

Hanfu movement

Listing of Han Chinese clothing

Society of China

Chinese educational gown

Guan Li

Mandarin sq.


^ Gernet, Jacques (1962). Day-to-day Daily life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276. Translated by H. M. Wright. Stanford: Stanford College Push. p. 130. ISBN -8047-0720-.

^ Xu, Zhongguo Gudai Lisu Cidian, p. 7.

^ Daoist Headdresses and Costume – Scarlet Gown

^ Higher Priest of the Shaolin Monastery

^ Stevens, Rebecca (1996). The kimono inspiration: art and art-to-don in The united states. Pomegranate. pp. 131142. ISBN 0876545983. 

^ Dalby, Liza (2001). Kimono: Fashioning Society. Washington, Usa: College of Washington Push. pp. 2532. ISBN -295-98155-5. 

^ Finnane, Antonia (2008), Transforming clothing in China: fashion, record, nation, Columbia College Push, pp. 4446, ISBN 0231143508, http://books.google.com/books?id=Ju3N4VeiQ28C&q=nomad#v=snippet&q=nomad 

^ Kim, Sohyun. A Examine on the Costume of Khotan, The Korean Modern society of Costume, v. 34, 169-183. 1997.

^ Costume in the Tang Dynastychinaculture.org retrieved 2010-01-07

^ Yoon, Ji-Won (2006). Exploration of the Foreign Dancing Costumes: From Han to Sui-Tang Dynasty. 56. The Korean Modern society of Costume. pp. 5772. http://ocean.kisti.re.kr/IS_mvpopo212L.do?cn1=JAKO200617033616779&poid=kna&process=download. 

^ Costume in the Track Dynastychinaculture.org retrieved 2010-01-07

^ Costume in the Ming Dynastychinaculture.org retrieved 2010-01-07


Zhou Xibao (1984), Zhongguo Gudai Fushi Shi (Heritage of Historic Chinese Costume), Beijing: Zhongguo Xiju.

Zhou, Xun Gao, Chunming The Chinese Costumes Exploration Team (1984), 5000 Years of Chinese Costume, Hong Kong: The Industrial Push. ISBN 9620750217

Xu Jialu (1991), Zhongguo Gudai Lisu Cidian (Dictionary of Rituals and Customs of Historic China).

Shen Congwen (1999, 2006), Zhongguo Gudai Fushi Yanjiu (Researches on Historic Chinese Costumes), Shanghai: Shanghai Century Publishing Team. ISBN 7-80678-329-six

, Huang Nengfu and Chen Juanjuan (1999), Zhonghua Lidai Fushi Yishu (The Art of Chinese Clothing By means of the Ages), Beijing.

Hua, Mei (2004), Gudai Fushi (Historic Costume), Beijing: Wenmu Chubanshe. ISBN 7-5010-1472-eight

External links

The Heritage of Chinese Clothing

Hanfu Assessment An English Hanfu Blog site

Classic Chinese Clothing Gallery

More information

Hanfu Union (Chinese)

Hanfu Marketing Association

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Cotton  Fur  Leather  Linen  Nylon  Polyester  Rayon  Silk  Spandex  Wool


Blouse  Crop top  Costume shirt  Halterneck  Henley shirt  Hoodie  Jersey  Guernsey (clothing)  Polo shirt  Shirt  Sleeveless shirt  Sweater  T-shirt  Tube top  Turtleneck

Trousers or pants

Bell-bottoms  Bermuda shorts  Bondage pants  Boxer shorts  Capri pants  Cargo pants  Culottes  Cycling shorts  Costume pants  Jeans  Jodhpurs  Overall  Parachute pants  Phat pants   Shorts  Sweatpants  Windpants


A-line skirt  Ballerina skirt  Fustanella  Hobble skirt  Jean skirt  Work skirt  Leather-based skirt  Kilt  Men’s skirts  Microskirt  Miniskirt  Pencil skirt  Poodle skirt  Prairie skirt  Rah-rah skirt  Sarong  Skort  Slip  Train  Wrap


Ball gown  Cocktail dress  Night gown  Gown  Jumper dress  Small black dress  Petticoat  Sari  Sundress  Tea gown  Wedding gown

Suits and uniforms

Academic dress  Afrocentric suit  Black tie  Buddhist monastic robe  Clerical clothing  Court docket dress  Gymslip  Jumpsuit  Lab coat  Mao suit  Morning dress  Pantsuit  Crimson Sea rig  Scrubs  Stroller  Tangzhuang  Tuxedo  White tie


Abaya  Academic gown  Anorak  Apron  Blazer  Cloak  Coat  Duffle coat  Frock coat  Jacket  Greatcoat  Hoodie  Opera coat  Overcoat  Pea coat  Poncho  Raincoat  Redingote  Robe  Shawl  Shrug  Ski suit  Sleeved blanket  Major coat  Trench coat  Vest  Waistcoat  Windbreaker


Boxer briefs  Boxer shorts  Brassiere  Briefs  Compression shorts  Corselet  Corset  Knickers  Lingerie  Long underwear  Men’s undergarments  Panties  Teddy  Trunks  Undershirt


Stomach chain  Belt  Bow tie  Chaps  Coin purse  Earring  Gaiters  Gloves  Handbag  Leg warmer  Leggings  Necklace  Necktie  Scarf  Stocking  Sunglasses  Suspenders  Tights


Athletic shoe  Boot  Costume shoe  Flip-flops  Hosiery  Pump  Sandal  Shoe  Slipper  Sock


Balaclava  Cap  Fascinator  Gaung Paung  Hat  Headband  Helmet  Hijab  Hood  Kerchief  Mantilla  Niqb  Sombrero  Turban  Ushanka  Veil


Babydoll  Blanket sleeper  Negligee  Nightcap  Nightgown  Nightshirt  Peignoir  Pajamas


Bikini  Swim diaper  Wetsuit

Clothing areas

Back closure  Buckle  Button  Buttonhole  Collar  Cuff  Elastic  Fly  Hemline  Hook-and-eye  Lapel  Neckline  Pocket  Shoulder pad  Shoulder strap  Sleeve  Snap  Strap  Velcro  Waistline  Zipper

National costume

Abaya  Aboyne dress  o b ba  o di  o t thn  Baro’t saya  Barong Tagalog  Bunad  jbningurinn  Cheongsam  Dashiki  Deel  Dhoti  Dirndl  Djellaba  Gkti  Gho & Kira  Han Chinese clothing  Hanbok  Jellabiya  Jilbb  Kebaya  Kente cloth  Kilt  Kimono  Lederhosen  Sampot  Sarafan  Sari  Sarong  Scottish gown

Historic clothes

Banyan  Bedgown  Bodice  Braccae  Breeches  Breeching  Brunswick  Chemise  Chiton  Chlamys  Doublet  Exomis  Farthingale  Frock  Himation  Hose  Houppelande  Jerkin  Justacorps  Palla  Peplos  Polonaise  Smock-frock  Stola  Toga  Tunic

Heritage and surveys

Africa  Historic Greece  Historic Rome  Historic world  Anglo-Saxon  Byzantine  Clothing terminology  Costume code  Early Medieval Europe  Formal wear  Han Chinese clothing  Heritage of clothing and textiles  Heritage of Western fashion series (1100s-2000s)  Sumptuary law  Timeline of clothing and textiles technology  Undergarments  Vietnam  Women donning pants

See also

Adaptive clothing  Grownup diaper  Bathrobe  Costume  Fashion  Ironing  Laundry  Locking clothing  Reversible garment

Categories: Chinese clothing | Han ChineseHidden classes: Content articles made up of simplified Chinese language textual content | Content articles made up of traditional Chinese language textual content